Two philosophers walked a path.
Homeros: Pittheus, how does one live a virtuous life?
Pittheus: Living in accordance with God, of course.
Homeros: I’m compelled to disagree. As an atheist and naturalist, I replace God with nature. A virtuous person breathes in unison with nature. Our reason is attributed by nature, and therefore ought to work in harmony with natural law.
Pittheus: You speak as though God and nature constitute a schism, when indeed God is behind nature and thus nature’s laws coextend the will of God.
Homeros: Then by what necessity is a Necessary Being, God, when science can show nature to be self-sufficient? You’ve only managed to reduce your concept of God to mean “nature”.
Pittheus: It may appear that way to you, but our worldviews couldn’t be further apart. Where you see chaos, I see divine order. I see a system which is rationally organized. The Universe is certainly logical.
Homeros: Science can explain the order of the Cosmos. No logical being has been found shepherding the planets around the stars.
Pittheus: Therein lies the great fallacy of atheism. You tell me the Universe is not guided by reason because it can be explained by reason. You say our existence is merely part of a system which follows logic, and therefore the system has no logic.
Homeros: A logical system is not the same as a mind’s ability to reason. By studying the Cosmos, we can gain knowledge about it. That does not mean the Universe possess knowledge.
Pittheus: Homeros, allow me to illustrate how you’ve again contradicted yourself. How does naturalism account for logic?
Homeros: Nothing more than the propagation of cause and effect, like anything else. The logic is encoded as the material structures themselves, not as some underlying spirit.
Pittheus: Then how, as you claim, does the Universe—a structured machine which ontologically parallels our brain—not possess knowledge?
Homeros fell silent.